Yes this could be done but is not an easy task. If you already now the entity it is easier then when the entity must also be chosen by the end user.
You could use the Mendix model reflection to choose the entity so that the user could choose the attribute it want to search on. Then based on the chosen attribute give him the filter possebilities like you have above. You might want to give different suggestions based on what sort of attribute it is. Then based on the selections use a microflow or OQL to retrieve those objects. Your only problem might be that for each different entity you would need a different microflow because since you need to return a list of objects based on the model reflection. And for microflows you can not dynamicly change the returned list.
Entity already known is easier because you already know which list to return.
Hope this helps a bit.