Can you try to restart your system and then install the .NET and Java prerequisites manually?
If your system is 64 bit and you are installing Mendix 7.23.3, then these are:
After installing these you can retry to run the installer, and I hope it will work then.
Did you completely remove all the contents of the installment package and tried downloading it again? Do you have the right permissions on your machine to install everything? Try running with administrator rights for example.
If it still persists, perhaps filing a ticket with Mendix support would be best.