Yes you can refresh chart data without using the refresh interval setting of chart widget. For this you will need to refresh the data view entity which encloses your chart. By doing so, your data view will refresh and chart inside data view will also refresh its data.
To refresh the parent data view, you can use microflow timer widget and call a microflow at some interval like every 10 seconds. In that microflow you will need to trigger a refresh in client on data view entity object so that data view is refreshed.