What you may need is a Pluggable widget as i dont see any thing of similar type in the marketplace(may be there is but when i did a search i didnt find any)
react-phone-number looks a good prospect to use inside the pluggable widget.
Since the output of this react component is a string, you can set it to a entity attribute of type string (if you wish to)
With the same idea made a small widget for you. see if this is useful.
if you need the source code here it is: https://github.com/khazaddoom/phone-number-widget
Follow the pluggable widget documentation for rebuilding for your needs.