Yes list operation provides only equal to option. But you can do this with loop logic. Loop over list, inside loop add a decision to check date. If object matches your condition, add it to a list. The required matching list will build up inside loop. At the end you can return that list.
In microflow expressions you can compare dates with less than, greater than operators and there are some date arithmetic functions also available.
In your picture, it looks like you are looking for search fields of data grid, not the data source. So for search fields there are options to set comparison as a range