You need to have the button inside of a dataview if it is nor already.
If so, you can add a flag to your object that ou can set to true if the microflow was executed. You could now hide the button if it is true, or add a split to your microflow so that it does not execute the actual action.
You can maintain two buttons in your dataview, one is to continue the flow and other is with “disabled” css class. Based on a flag you can make them show and hide in the UI.