The most information you can get would be in your deployment\model\lib\i18n folder, there are .properties files for each language. However, the strings are not identified by label name (as those aren't unique through a project) but by identifier in your model.
I'm not sure what you mean by 'database label'. Additionally, attribute names are not linked to a certain string, text labels are defined on forms and not linked to an attribute.
Also keep in mind that the implementation might change through versions, this is not an exposed API.