Same problem here. It seems that there is a difference in vcredist_x64.exe and vcredist2010_x64.exe. This is part of Microsoft Visual C++ 2010 SP1 Redistributable Package.
when I look at the Microsoft internet page I receive a 404 - File or directory not found. (microsoft.com) error.
The link used to get the C++ 2010 package seems to no longer exist, most likely due to Microsoft no longer offering it.
The link in the documentation https://docs.mendix.com/howto/general/install#troubleshooting got updated, with a slightly newer version that does still work. Installing the C++ 2010 package from there first, and then installing mendix again should work.